Created by William and Mary students for Econ 449, American Economic Mobility Over Two Centuries. Source for the underlying data: Claibourn, M. P. (2012, April). Blacks in Virginia: Demographic Trends in Historical Context. Retrieved from Old Historical City, County and State Maps of Virginia. (2019, September 25). Retrieved from!fancybox/3344cafc/1890-Map-of-Delaware-Maryland-Virginia-and-West-Virginia.jpg. US Census Bureau. (2018, January 16). 1890 Census Bulletins. Retrieved from